Cysts in the ovary are fluid filled pockets present inside or on its surface. Women have two ovaries situated on either side of the uterus and are the size of an almond. Ovarian cysts are fairly common; and by and large, these cysts are harmless.
A majority of the ovarian cysts vanish without treatment. On the other hand, some cysts remain and enlarge and some may even rupture. These produce serious symptoms. The rupture is associated with considerable pain and discomfort. In rare circumstances, intra-peritoneal hemorrhage and death may occur.
Symptoms of ruptured ovaries due to endometriosis
A ruptured ovary is seen as:
- Swelling in the abdomen
- Abdominal discomfort and pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Painful bowel movements
- Pain in the pelvis before or during menses
- Intercourse is painful
- Breast tenderness.
Causes Of Ruptured Ovaries Due To Endometriosis
Ovarian cysts develop in consequence to the normal function of the menstrual cycle. These are functional ovarian cysts. Every month, the ovaries grow cyst-like structures known as ovarian follicles. Follicles synthesize progesterone and estrogen and discharge an egg during ovulation.
Occasionally, a normal monthly follicle may keep enlarging. This forms a functional cyst. These are harmless, seldom produce pain, and vanish on their own in a couple of menstrual cycles. Some cysts are not related to the normal menstrual cycle. These cysts include:
- Dermoid cysts: These cysts comprise of – hair, skin or teeth, given that, they develop from cells which produce human eggs.
- These form from ovarian tissue and may be filled with a watery or mucous material.
- These ovarian cysts develop due to endometriosis, a condition wherein the cells of the endometrium of the uterus grow outside the uterus. Some of this endometrial tissue may get attached to the ovary and form a cystic growth.
These cysts may keep growing and enlarging and can burst open, i.e. rupture spontaneously; this calls for a medical emergency.
Treatment For Ruptured Ovaries Due To Endometriosis
- By and large, people having a cyst rupture are managed conservatively. The individual will be given oral analgesics. There will be abdominal examinations and laboratory testing, and repeat imaging. In case, there is constant bleeding or if the patient is not stable hemodynamically, surgical intervention is necessary.
- Birth control pills: If there are multiple episodes of ruptured cysts or after a single severe episode, your OB/GYN will recommend suppression of ovulation with oral hormonal contraception / birth control pills; what’s more they also diminish the risk of recurrence of ovarian cysts.
- Surgery:Surgical removal of a cyst may be advocated if it is too large, keeps on growing, or persists through two or three menstrual cycles. Your doctor will carry out an ovarian cystectomy. In some circumstances, your doctor may suggest removing the affected ovary entirely, whilst leaving the other ovary intact in a procedure called oophorectomy. In really extreme cases, a hysterectomy is advised, wherein the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, as well as the uterus are removed.
- Bleeding linked to the rupture is stopped with suturing, cautery, cystectomy, or wedge resection.
- Hemorrhagic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation and death have been reported in very few cases; most cyst ruptures are usually self-limiting, and can be effectively managed with analgesics.