A hematoma develops when the blood gets collected under the skin from the leaking blood vessels, mostly the veins and capillaries. Perianal hematoma is pooling of blood under the skin and subcutaneous tissue near the edge of anal area. The condition appears suddenly and it is very painful. It occurs due to back pressure or traumatic rupture of small vein consequent upon straining at stool, lifting heavy weight, coughing.
Hematoma in perianal area can be as small as a one centimeter or as large as a tennis ball. The pocket of blood in its natural course becomes firm after a period of time and begins to resolve. It usually takes 3 months to shrink depending on the size. Home remedies will help the perianal hematoma to heal faster.
Main Causes Of Perianal Hematoma
Hematoma in perianal area usually occurs due to an injury. The blood vessels under the surface of skin and in subcutaneous tissue are hurt. They begin to leak and there is pooling of blood in the traumatized perianal area. Below are given important causes of perianal hematoma.
- Constipation is one of the most important causes of perianal hematoma.
- Injury while lifting heavy weight or while riding a bicycle can lead to perianal hematoma.
- People who do regular workouts in gym or lift heavy weight are susceptible to this condition.
- Severe cough can cause strain in perianal region which may sometimes lead to hematoma in perianal area.
- Surgery through anal opening is also a leading cause of hematoma in this area. In fact it is a minor complication.
- Trauma while introducing sigmoidoscope, proctoscope or any other investigative medical instrument can damage the blood vessels and lead to hematoma. It may also happen due to enema.
- It is also common among people who sit for long hours such as truck drivers.
- Perianal hematoma may also occur during pregnancy.
Perianal Hematoma Symptoms
Peiranal hematoma is a small purple swelling on the edge of anus. It is usually situated in the lateral region of anal margin. On examination it resembles like a semi ripe blackcurrant. The swelling is as small as a finger nail or large as a base ball.
There is a lumpy feeling around the anus. The condition is painful and tender to touch. The pain may vary from mild to severe. Pain may be sudden and severe and proportionately intense in comparison to the swelling.
The anal area is sensitive to touch. Due to pain patient is unable to sit. In fact pain aggravates on sitting or while walking. Bowel movement is painful.
Natural Treatment For Perianal Hematoma
Perianal hematoma in majority of cases is not a serious problem. Most perianal hematoma resolve after few days, indeed, this condition is therefore called ‘a five day, painful, self curing lesion’. However, if it is not treated during this period the collected blood will form a lump which may heal gradually over a period of 2 to 3 months.
If it is detected and excised in first two days, the pain will become less and healing process will be much speedier. Once the Hematoma begins to settle and the pain becomes less, there is no point in excising it. Patient has to manage the lump conservatively for resolving the swelling. The residual lump feels like a skin tag which may be irritating.
Conservative treatment with simple home remedies such as cold compresses will help to reduce pain and swelling. Regular sitz bath two times in a day will alleviate pain and swelling. Patient may feel relieved of pain with analgesics. Medical practitioners also recommend ointments and creams for reducing pain.
Patient should sit on a doughnut shaped pillow which helps to reduce pressure and pain while sitting. Patient should avoid running, jogging or activities which require weight lifting etc. He should take care to prevent constipation. To prevent constipation diet plays an important role.
Eat foods that are rich in fibers, however for first few days of perianal hematoma increase liquid and semi solid food in the diet. This will help easy bowel movement and cause less strain on the hematoma. Also increase the intake of fruits as they are rich in vitamin C. It helps in resolution of hematoma.