Joint effusion is the term used for accumulation of fluid in the tissues around the joint. This excess of fluid leads to swelling in and around the joint with a puffy feeling. The effusion is a synovial fluid, which is a reactionary fluid caused as a result of inflammation of the synovial tissue of the joint.
Joint effusion reduces friction between two articular cartilages by acting as a lubricant; it also has the shock absorbing capacity from any external trauma to protect the joint.
Joint effusion mainly appears in knees, and occasionally in hip joint, although any joint is susceptible for effusion.
Causes of Joint Effusion
Joint effusion mainly occurs as a result of trauma to the joint and nearby bones and ligaments, as in case of ligament tear, fracture of bone of knee joint, infections, autoimmune disease as a result of swelling of tissue of joints as in rheumatoid arthritis.
Causes of Knee Effusion
- Osteoarthritis: it is a ageing disease, where the cartilages of the joint are gradually destroyed causing swelling and effusion. It is generally in weight bearing joint, such as knee and hip joint.
- Rheumatoid arthritis; it is an autoimmune disease; there is inflammation of tissue which gives a reactionary effusion. Pain, redness, immobility, loss of appetite and weight loss are some of the symptoms of this disease.
- Infection: acute infection caused due to staphylococci, tuberculous infection etc.
- Trauma. Fracture
Causes Of Hip Joint Effusions
The causes for hip joint effusion are similar to knee joint effusion, except in case of septic arthritis: where the pain is severe in the groins and in the hip joint which make walking and movement of the leg impossible.
Also see Inner Knee Pain Causes