Causes Of Hemophilia: Its Symptoms And Treatment Options

Hemophilia is a rather uncommon genetic disorder wherein the blood fails to clot normally because it does not have adequate blood-clotting proteins. You tend to bleed for a very long time after an injury, in comparison with one whose blood clotted normally.

A huge health issue is bleeding inside your body, particularly in the knees, elbows and the ankles.

Internal bleeding can impair your organs and become life threatening.

Signs And Symptoms Of Hemophilia

The signs and symptoms of hemophilia depend upon on the level of clotting factors. If the clotting-factor level is a little low, you will bleed only after a trauma or after a surgical procedure. If the insufficiency is severe, there will be spontaneous bleeding.

  • Excessive and inexplicable bleeding from cuts, injuries, after surgery or dental work.
  • Large or deep bruises.
  • Atypical bleeding after vaccination.
  • Pain, tenderness, redness, swelling and warmth in the joints.
  • Blood in the stool and / urine.
  • Painful, prolonged headache.
  • Nosebleeds
  • Repeated vomiting
  • Double vision
  • Exhaustion

What Are The Causes Of Hemophilia?

When you bleed, the body pools blood cells together to form a clot to put a stop to the bleeding.

The process of clotting is supported by platelets and plasma proteins. When you have an insufficiency of one of these clotting factors, you develop hemophilia.

Hemophilia is genetically inherited. On the other hand, statistics reveal that approximately 30 % of people having hemophilia do not have a family history of the condition. In these individuals, it develops due to spontaneous mutation.

  • Hemophilia A –the commonest type develops due to an inadequate clotting factor VIII.
  • Hemophilia B – the second most common type develops due to an inadequate clotting factor IX.
  • Hemophilia C – develops due to an inadequate clotting factor XI.

Hemophilia inheritance

  • Hemophilia A or B: The gene responsible for hemophilia A and hemophilia B is situated on the X chromosome, so it is never passed from the father to the son. Hemophilia A or B is very common in boys and is passed from the mother to the son. A large number of women having the defective gene are only carriers and do not have any apparent manifestation of the disorder.
  • Hemophilia C: This gene is passed on to the child by either one of the parents. Hemophilia C can occur in boys as well as girls.

Treatment Options For Hemophilia

There is no cure for hemophilia; nonetheless, most people lead a fairly normal life. In case of bleeding episodes, the following needs to be done:

  • Mild cases of hemophilia A: Introducing hormone desmopressin into a vein helps stimulate a release of more clotting factor to halt the bleeding. Infrequently, desmopressin may be given as a nasal drug.
  • Severe cases of hemophilia A or hemophilia B: ¬†An infusion of recombinant clotting factor or one obtained from donated human blood is given to the person to stop the bleeding. Repeated infusions are required if internal bleeding is excessive.
  • Hemophilia C: Clotting factor XI, which is deficient in hemophilia C is available only in Europe. Elsewhere, plasma infusions need to be given to halt bleeding.
  • Regular infusions of clotting factor or desmopressin: Regular infusions prevent bleeding. It also helps by decreasing the time that you will spend in the hospital and diminishes the side effects such as damage to joints. Your health care provider will show you how to carry out the infusion.
  • Fibrin sealants: These when applied to the wound site encourages clotting and healing.
  • First aid for cuts: Apply pressure and a bandage; this takes care of the bleeding.