Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited condition wherein groups of cysts are formed in the kidneys. The cysts are benign sacs containing fluid. Common complications of polycystic kidney disease are hypertension and kidney failure.
Lifestyle modifications and medical treatments help decrease the damage to the kidneys from complications.
Signs And Symptoms Of Polycystic Kidney Disease
Clinical features and symptoms of polycystic kidney disease are:
- Pain in the back
- An increase in your abdominal size
- Blood in the urine
- Frequent urination
- Urine infections
- Kidney stones
- Kidney failure
Causes Of Polycystic Kidney Disease
Abnormal genes are the cause for polycystic kidney disease, and the disease is known to run in families.
2 types of polycystic kidney disease, caused by dissimilar genetic flaws are as follows:
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: The condition manifests between the ages 30 – 40 years. Only one parent must have the disease to pass it onto the child. In case one parent has this genetic flaw, each child has a 50 % risk of developing the condition.
- Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: This type is less common. The clinical features manifest soon after birth or later in childhood. Both the parents must have the anomalous genes to set off the disease in the child. If both parents carry the faulty gene, each child has a 25 % chance of developing polycystic kidney disease.
Treatment Options For Polycystic Kidney Disease
Treating polycystic kidney disease comprises of dealing with the symptoms and complications:
- Hypertension: Keeping the blood pressure in check delays the progression of the disease and slows down further damage to the kidneys. Ensure that you incorporate a low-sodium, low-fat diet and exercise regularly. Also, reducing stress helps control high blood pressure. Confer with your health care provider about the suitable medicines that you need to take. Medications called angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors control hypertension successfully.
- Pain: Pain in the back is fairly common and almost chronic, and your doctor will suggest analgesics to deal with the pain. Discuss with your physician the dose that you need to follow. In rare cases, your doctor may advise surgical intervention to excise the cysts if they are too big. Ginger is an effective home remedy for pains. Have a glass of ginger tea daily to ease chronic back pain.
- Bladder or kidney infections: You need to manage the infection speedily using antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor to prevent kidney impairment.
- Blood in the urine: Clot formation is a common complication; to tackle this you need to drink plenty of fluids to dilute the urine. Dilution prevents obstructive clots from forming in the urinary tract. Bed rest is a must to reduce / stop the bleeding.
- Kidney failure: In case of a kidney failure, you will require either dialysis or a kidney transplant.
- Liver cysts: Another complication of polycystic kidney disease is the development of cysts in the liver. Your doctor will advocate draining the symptomatic cysts, surgery to excise a portion of the liver or liver transplant.
- It is vital that you have a regular screening for intracranial aneurysms. If an aneurysm is discovered on the scan, surgical clipping of the aneurysm is necessary in order to diminish the risk of bleeding.