Miscarriage is quite devastating and shocking for a pregnant woman, even if it occurs in its early stage. According to statistics about one in every five pregnancy ends up in miscarriage. Miscarriage is more acceptable term used by patients, while abortion is a popular scientific term used by medical fraternity, there is no distinction between the two.
The term early miscarriage is used when pregnancy terminates in the first 12 weeks after conception. Early miscarriage is common; by all means it is possible that a woman before realizing of being pregnant may miscarry.
Types Of Early Miscarriage
Miscarriage has been categorized in several types.
- Threatened miscarriage: It occurs in early stage of pregnancy, meaning in first 12 weeks of pregnancy. There is bleeding but the cervix remains closed. If fetal heartbeats are evident on ultrasound scan, there is likelihood of continuation of pregnancy.
- Inevitable miscarriage: it is also a type of early miscarriage, but here the cervix remains dilated. This makes inevitable the expulsion of conceptual product.
- Incomplete miscarriage: it means that the process of expulsion has begun but there are some tissue still left in the uterus.
- Complete miscarriage: it is a type of miscarriage where the total products of conception are expelled and the womb is empty. There is no residual tissue left and the cervix remains closed.
All the four stages are possible in early miscarriage.
What Are The Causes Of Early Miscarriage?
Fault in embryo development resulting into its death due to chromosomal defect is said to be the main cause for early miscarriage. Low implantation of placenta can also result in miscarriage. In most cases people are not able to know why such thing happens. It has to be considered as just a chance and nothing more than that.
Some women are at a higher risk of early miscarriage than other woman due to their age. A woman who is in her thirties is at a risk of miscarriage than her counterpart who is twenty years of age. Similarly, a woman who is of 40 is at a greater risk of miscarriage than both the younger age stated.
Lifestyle a woman lives also matters. If she is drinking, smoking the chances of early miscarriage is far more than her counterpart who does not drink or smoke.
Maternal infections such as Listeria, malaria, physical trauma, low immune level, hormonal deficiency (progesterone hormone) are some other causes to be considered when there is recurrent early miscarriage.
Symptoms And Treatment For Early Miscarriage
The commonest symptom of early miscarriage is bleeding from vagina. It can be just a spotting in the beginning, which may result in heavy blood flow after few days. There may be blood clots accompanied with bleeding. The blood can be frank red or brown in color. Cramps in back and abdomen also accompany bleeding.
Sometime the symptoms of early miscarriage may be discovered only at the time of ultrasound scanning.
In threatened early miscarriage the bleeding is scanty. There is no history of expulsion of the product of conception. Signs of pregnancy such as breast changes may be present.
In inevitable early miscarriage: the bleeding is frank and severe from the vagina. If there is heavy blood loss, there may be history of dizziness or fainting. Patient may have low blood pressure, cold and clammy.
Incomplete miscarriage: there is continuous or recurrent bleeding. History of expulsion of product is present. In severe blood loss, symptoms of shock may be present.
Early Miscarriage Treatment
Many times the patient can be salvaged from early miscarriage, especially if there is threatened miscarriage. Pregnancy may continue in some cases. Complete bed rest is needed in such cases. At times the foot end of the bed is elevated.
In many other cases where the miscarriage is inevitable, doctors may give medications to carry out complete expulsion of early miscarriage.
When the bleeding persists for a longer duration and there is history of expulsion of products of conception, patient may also opt for surgical procedure called dilatation and curettage.